Read 1. Kettle (2006). He describes three characteristics of “wicked” problems and five pathologies that result in a failure of the government to learn from previous errors in crisis response. Describe the characteristics of “wicked” problems and explain one or more of the pathologies that impact operations in the response phase of incidents.
Kettl, D. (2006). Is the Worst Yet to Come? The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science,604, 273-287. http://academic.udayton.edu/RichardGhere/emergency%20mngt/Annals%20Mar%202006/Kettl%20Worst.pdf