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research variables or independent and dependent variables
- List the major study variables, and categorize them as research variables or independent and dependent variables.
- Discuss how well the variables reflect the concepts from the theory framework.
- List the demographic variables measured in the study, and any extraneous variables identified by the authors. Evaluate whether or not there are missing demographic variables, in your opinion.
- Identify the specific study design. Explain whether the design was appropriate to answer the study’s research questions/ hypotheses.
- Briefly describe the study procedures, including recruitment, screening for eligibility, consent, timing & method of measurement of demographic & key study variables, and intervention, if applicable.
- Discuss the clarity of description of study procedures. In other words, could another researcher replicate the study using the procedures described in the article?
- If more than one group was included in the study, explain how participants were assigned to groups.
- Describe any threats to design validity mentioned by the authors. If they did not describe that, then say so.
- Describe the limits of generalizability (external validity).
Population, Sample, & Setting
- What was the population for the study?
- Identify the specific sampling method used for the study. Discuss the adequacy of the sampling method for producing a sample representative of the population.
- Discuss potential biases with the sampling method used.
- Identify and evaluate the inclusion and exclusion criteria used in the study.
- Discuss how the planned sample size was determined (including power analysis & consideration of potential attrition if included).
- Discuss actual sample size attained for the study, including acceptance rate, refusal rate, and attrition rate.
- Describe study setting and its appropriateness for the study.