Perfect solution: define and give the formula for an odds ratio: 2)

Complete the following assignment.  Your assignment should be at least 4 pages total.  Use proper APA citations and list your references. 

1)      Define and give the formula for an odds ratio:

2)      Complete the 2 x 2 table below and calculate the Odds Ratio: There were 91 total with lung cancer of which 27 were not exposed to tobacco smoke; 173 total without lung cancer of which 56 were exposed to tobacco smoke.  Show your work.



Disease Status





Exposure Status









Odds Ratio =

3)      Interpret the odds ratio / what does this finding mean?

4)      You are reviewing the results of a case-control study of vitamin D supplements and prostate cancer. The study had an alpha level of .05 and 95% CI.  The study findings report an Odds Ratio of .49, p value = .001, 95% CI (.45 – .60).

Interpret these results: comment on the OR, p value, and CI.

5) Discuss some of the methodological limitations of the case-control study design.


Include at least 2 scholarly sources (one to include your textbook)