Motivation refers to forces either within or external to a person that arouse enthusiasm, and persistence to pursue a certain course of action. The study of motivation concerns with what prompts people to initiate action, what influences their choice of action, and why they persist in doing it over time. To the extent that the behavior is successful, the person is rewarded in the sense that the need is satisfied(Daft, 2016).
Intrinsic rewards are the satisfactions a person receives in the process of performing a particular action. Extrinsic rewards are given by another person, typically a manager, and include promotions, praise, pay increases (Daft, 2016).
Content theories of motivation emphasize the needs that motivate people. These needs translate into an internal drive that motivates an individual’s specific behaviors in an attempt to fulfill the needs (Daft, 2016). The organization’s reward system can be designed to meet employees’ needs and reinforce them in directing their energies and priorities toward attainment of organizational goals. Content theories of motivation based on employee needs include: Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory, Alderfer’s ERG theory, Herzberg’s two-factor theory, and McClelland’s acquired needs theory.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory proposes that humans are motivated by multiple needs and these needs exist in a hierarchical order (Daft, 2016). Maslow identified five general types of motivating needs in order of ascendance–physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization needs. Once a need is satisfied, it declines in importance and the next higher need is activated, which is then satisfied, and the process continues up the hierarchy.
Alderfer proposed the ERG theory, which identified three categories of needs: existence needs, which are the needs for physical well-being; relatedness needs, which pertain to the need for satisfactory relationships with others; and growth needs, which focus on the development of human potential and the desire for personal growth and increased competence (Daft, 2016).
Herzberg developed the two-factor theory of motivation. He suggested that the work characteristics associated with dissatisfaction were different from those pertaining to satisfaction, prompting the notion that two factors influence work motivation–hygiene factor and motivators (Daft, 2016).
McClelland developed the acquired needs theory, which proposes that needs are acquired during the individual’s lifetime. People are not born with these needs but may learn them through life experiences (Daft, 2016). The three needs most frequently studied are the need for achievement, the need for affiliation, and the need for power (Daft, 2016).
Why do you think making progress ranks as the most important factor contributing to motivation according to a recent study? How can managers provide a sense of progress for employees working on long-range projects that might not show results for months or even years? Can you use a series to explain your answer?
200 words please