epidemiology of allergies

Advanced Pharmacology

            The epidemiology of allergies is known as what happens when the immune system reacts to something that’s usually harmless. Those triggers, which doctors call “allergens,” can include pollen, mold, and animal dander, certain foods, or things that irritate your skin.  Allergies are very common. At least 1 in 5 Americans has one (Nag, Samaddar, Kant & Mahanty, 2017).

            Pharmacoeconomic treatment drugs depend on the type of allergy.  For example, steroids can help reduce inflammation in the nasal passages, lungs, and skin. Steroid use can cause a wide range of side effects and needs to be closely monitored by the doctor. Prednisone is a corticosteroid, or man-made form of the steroid that the body produces to fight illnesses and injuries. It is prescribed alone or in combination with other medication to treat severe allergic reactions and many other conditions. It is given in liquid or tablet form.

            Most antihistamines possess some sedative properties at some point in the dose ranges investigated. Many antihistamines have a “dose window” in which they are nonsedating, but administration at higher doses has a negative impact on cognitive and psychomotor ability. For example, the second-generation drugs loratadine and cetirizine induce negligible sedation at their prescribed clinical dose of 10 mg, yet higher doses have resulted in impairment.

            Patient education includes teaching the patient about symptoms, triggers, how to use the medication properly, and teach about the importance of following up with the doctor (Nag, Samaddar, Kant & Mahanty, 2017).  The nurse should teach about side effects — The side effects of nasal steroids, for example, are mild and may include a slightly unpleasant smell or taste or drying of the nasal lining. In some people, nasal steroids cause irritation, crusting, and bleeding of the nasal septum, especially during the winter. You can minimize these problems by reducing the dose of your nasal steroid, applying a moisturizing nasal gel or spray to the septum before using the spray, or switching to a water-based (rather than an alcohol-based) spray.


Karl, K. (2017).  Medication Allergy. Harvard Medical School Health Topics A-Z. Retrieved from https://www.thecampuscommon.com/library/ezproxy/ticketdemocs.asp?sch=suo&turl=https://search-ebscohost-com.southuniversity.libproxy.edmc.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edscrc&AN=edscrc.24213350&site=eds-live

Nag, D. S., Samaddar, D. P., Kant, S., & Mahanty, P. R. (2017). Clinical Information: Perianesthetic refractory anaphylactic shock with cefuroxime in a patient with history of penicillin allergy on multiple antihypertensive medications. Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology (English Edition), 67, 217–220. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjane.2014.08.001