epidemiology of allergies

Advanced Pharmacology

            A number of large studies have investigated the topic of epidemiology of allergies and much depends on the type and symptoms.  Three studies used a random calling methodology with administration of a survey, with methodologic variations among the studies (Hutyrová & Bystroň, 2018).  Epidemiological studies on representative populations clearly demonstrate a significant general increase of atopic diseases during the last decades, mainly for pollinosis. For the manifestation of an atopic disease both allergen exposure, which leads to specific IgE antibody formation, and the presence of additional realization factors are required. The nature of the latter is still partially unknown.

            Most pharmacoeconomic treatment options for allergies can be obtained from over-the-counter medications.  Lifestyle changes like using air filters and avoiding triggers are important, too.  Prescription antihistamines include Azelastine eyedrops (Optivar), Azelastine nasal sprays, Astelin, Astepro), Carbinoxamine (Palgic) and Cyproheptadine.

            Compared to second generation, H1 antagonists, also called H1 blockers, are a class of medications that block the action of histamine at the H1 receptor, helping to relieve allergic reactions. Agents where the main therapeutic effect is mediated by negative modulation of histamine receptors are termed antihistamines; other agents may have antihistaminergic action but are not true antihistamines.

            Allergies can put a strain on the patient, which underlies the need to educate this patient on how to maintain a state of health that enables him to continue working. Determination of symptoms and identification of allergens will ensure that the patient acquires knowledge on how to adopt preventive measures.


Beasley, S. (2018).  Addressing allergies and treatment options. Virginia Quarterly Review, 94(4), 20–27.

Hutyrová, B., & Bystroň, J. (2018). Treatment options for severe allergic asthma and allergic comorbiditie. Advances in Dermatology & Allergology / Postepy Dermatologii i Alergologii, 35(5), 510–515. https://doi.org/10.5114/ada.2018.77243